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《中國的核安全》白皮書(3)(中英對照)

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II. Building a Policy and Legal Framework on Nuclear Safety

二、構建核安全政策法規體系
China is a leading country in the application of nuclear energy and technologies. Nuclear safety is critical to national security, and the corresponding policies and laws are the cornerstone of nuclear safety. To achieve optimal management of nuclear safety, China employs the highest standards and strictest requirements in shaping the policy and legal framework, implementing a national strategy, making medium- and long-term plans, and improving laws and regulations concerning nuclear safety.
中國是核能與核技術利用大國,核安全是國家安全的重要內容,政策法規是核安全的基本保障。中國從高從嚴構建核安全政策法規體系,實施國家核安全戰略,制定核安全中長期規劃,完善核安全法規標準,確保核安全管理要求從高不從低、管理尺度從嚴不從寬。
Formulating a national nuclear safety strategy. China treats the development and utilization of nuclear energy as an important strategy to boost economic and social development and build a beautiful China, including it in the country's medium- and long-term plans for national economic and social development. Since the founding of the People's Republic of China, and particularly since reform and opening up, China has committed itself to prioritizing nuclear safety and maintaining a balance between safety and development throughout the stages of initial, early, active, and safe and efficient development.
制定實施國家核安全戰略。中國將開發利用核能作為促進經濟社會快速發展、建設美麗中國的重要戰略,納入國民經濟和社會發展中長期規劃。中華人民共和國成立以來特別是改革開放以來,中國核能利用從起步發展、適度發展到積極發展、安全高效發展,始終堅持安全第一,實現發展和安全兩個目標相互促進、有機融合。
Making medium- and long-term development plans for nuclear safety. China makes medium- and long-term development plans for nuclear safety every five years under the framework of the Five-year Plan for National Economic and Social Development. It has released the 12th Five-year Plan for Nuclear Safety and Radioactive Pollution Prevention and Control and Vision for 2020, and the 13th Five-year Plan for Nuclear Safety and Radioactive Pollution Prevention and Control and Vision for 2025, analyzing the situation, clarifying guidelines and principles, and defining goal indicators, key tasks and projects, and supportive measures for nuclear safety. These plans have helped to coordinate all efforts to ensure nuclear safety and effectively improved our nuclear safety and regulatory capacity.
制定發布核安全中長期發展規劃。在國民經濟和社會發展五年規劃的總體框架下,中國每五年制定實施核安全中長期規劃,先后發布了《核安全與放射性污染防治“十二五”規劃及2020年遠景目標》《核安全與放射性污染防治“十三五”規劃及2025年遠景目標》,分析了核安全現狀與形勢,闡明了核安全指導思想和基本原則,明確了核安全目標指標、重點任務、重點工程、保障措施,統籌核安全各項工作,有效提升核安全水平和監管能力。
Establishing a sound system of laws and industrial standards. China continues to strengthen the formulation of the laws on nuclear safety, under which administrative regulations and departmental rules dovetail with the law, the provisions of laws and regulations and technical standards complement each other, and central and local regulations combine to the best effect. This makes the full regulation of nuclear energy development and utilization possible, laying the foundations for the rule of law in this sector. In June 2003, the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Prevention and Control of Radioactive Pollution was promulgated; in September 2017, the Nuclear Safety Law of the People's Republic of China was issued. By June 2019, China had enacted nine administrative regulations such as the Regulations on the Supervision and Administration of Civil Nuclear Facilities, the Regulations on the Supervision and Administration of Civil Nuclear Safety Equipment, the Regulations on Nuclear Material Control, and the Regulations on Emergency Management of Nuclear Accidents at Nuclear Power Plants. It had issued over 30 sets of departmental rules and 100 sets of safety guidelines, and formulated over 1,000 national and industry standards related to nuclear safety. Over 200 local regulations have been formulated by China's 31 provinces and equivalent administrative units. To update legal standards and keep abreast with the most advanced international developments, we have reviewed and summarized domestic and overseas experience in nuclear safety, and closely tracked the latest safety standards of the International Atomic Energy Agency and countries with advanced nuclear technologies.
建立系統完備的法規標準體系。中國持續強化核安全法規標準建設,形成了法律、行政法規、部門規章相銜接,法規要求和技術標準相補充,中央和地方相結合的法規標準體系,實現了核能開發利用安全監管全覆蓋,為依法治核夯實了基礎。2003年6月,《中華人民共和國放射性污染防治法》頒布;2017年9月,《中華人民共和國核安全法》頒布。截至2019年6月,頒布《民用核設施安全監督管理條例》《民用核安全設備監督管理條例》《核材料管制條例》《核電廠核事故應急管理條例》等行政法規9部,發布部門規章30余項和安全導則100余項,制定核安全相關國家標準和行業標準1000余項,31個省、自治區、直轄市制定地方性法規文件200余個。及時總結國內外核安全實踐經驗,密切跟蹤國際原子能機構和核電發達國家最新安全要求,不斷更新法規標準,始終保持國際先進水平。

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formulation [.fɔ:mju'leiʃən]

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n. 形成,簡潔陳述,公式化

 
effectively [i'fektivli]

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adv. 事實上,有效地

 
security [si'kju:riti]

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n. 安全,防護措施,保證,抵押,債券,證券

 
social ['səuʃəl]

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adj. 社會的,社交的
n. 社交聚會

 
prevention [pri'venʃən]

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n. 阻止,妨礙,預防

 
update [ʌp'deit]

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v. 更新,補充最新資料
n. 更新

 
capacity [kə'pæsiti]

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n. 能力,容量,容積; 資格,職位
adj.

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legal ['li:gəl]

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adj. 法律的,合法的,法定的

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combine [kəm'bain]

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v. 結合,聯合,使結合
n. 集團,聯合企業

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administration [əd.mini'streiʃən]

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n. 行政,管理,行政部門

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