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《中國的核安全》白皮書(2)(中英對照)

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I. Following a Rational, Coordinated and Balanced Nuclear Safety Strategy

一、樹立理性、協調、并進的核安全觀
On March 24, 2014, at the third Nuclear Security Summit in The Hague, the Netherlands, President Xi Jinping proposed a rational, coordinated and balanced nuclear safety strategy. China's nuclear safety strategy is the embodiment of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era in the nuclear field, an important element of China's overall national security framework, and a major innovation in the theory of nuclear safety governance. The strategy is an important milestone in promoting international nuclear safety. It lays out the principles and methods for addressing the fundamental issues of global nuclear safety governance and building a community of shared future for nuclear safety.
2014年3月24日,在荷蘭海牙第三屆核安全峰會上,習近平主席提出理性、協調、并進的核安全觀。中國核安全觀是習近平新時代中國特色社會主義思想在核安全領域的集中體現,是中國總體國家安全觀的重要組成部分,是核安全治理領域的重大理論創新,是推進國際核安全進程的重要里程碑,為解決核安全全球治理的根本性問題,構建核安全命運共同體指明了原則、方法和路徑。
The kernel of China's nuclear safety strategy is the "Four Emphases". Systematically promoting nuclear safety in an all-round way is the main purpose of China's nuclear safety strategy, which is embodied in equal emphasis on development and safety, rights and obligations, independent efforts and coordination, and symptoms and root causes.
中國核安全觀的核心內涵是“四個并重”。全面系統推進核安全進程,是中國核安全觀的核心要義,體現為發展和安全并重、權利和義務并重、自主和協作并重、治標和治本并重。
– We should place equal emphasis on development and safety, and develop the nuclear industry in a context of guaranteed safety. Development is the foundation of safety, while safety is a precondition of development. Development and safety are the basic requirements of humanity for the peaceful use of nuclear energy. We should uphold the concept of seeking safety for development and promoting development with safety, so that the two objectives can be integrated and mutually reinforcing. Only by achieving better development can we truly control safety risks; and only by guaranteeing safety can nuclear energy achieve sustainable development.
——發展和安全并重,以確保安全為前提發展核能事業。發展是安全的基礎,安全是發展的條件。發展和安全是人類和平利用核能的基本訴求,猶如車之兩輪、鳥之雙翼,相輔相成、缺一不可。應秉持為發展求安全、以安全促發展的理念,讓發展和安全兩個目標有機融合、相互促進。只有實現更好發展,才能真正管控安全風險;只有實現安全保障,核能才能持續發展。
– We should place equal emphasis on rights and obligations, and promote international nuclear safety on the basis of respect for the rights and interests of all countries. States should effectively fulfill their obligations under the international legal instruments on nuclear safety, fully implement the relevant resolutions of the United Nations Security Council, and consolidate and develop the existing legal framework for nuclear safety. At the same time, we should adhere to the principle of fairness and uphold pragmatism in respecting the right of all countries to adopt their own nuclear safety policies and measures suited to their national conditions, and respecting their right to protect sensitive nuclear safety information.
——權利和義務并重,以尊重各國權益為基礎推進國際核安全進程。各國應切實履行核安全國際法律文書規定的義務,全面執行聯合國安理會有關決議,鞏固和發展現有核安全法律框架。同時,堅持公平原則,秉持務實精神,尊重各國根據本國國情采取適合自身的核安全政策和舉措的權利,尊重各國保護核安全敏感信息的權利。
– We should place equal emphasis on independent efforts and coordination, and seek universal nuclear safety with a mutually beneficial approach. Nuclear safety is first and foremost a national issue, and the primary responsibility should be borne by the government of each country. Governments should understand and undertake their responsibilities, and be responsible not only to themselves but also to the world. They should strengthen coordination, make joint efforts, share achievements, and seek mutual benefit. We should benefit from and contribute to nuclear safety, and endeavor to globalize nuclear safety.
——自主和協作并重,以互利共贏為途徑尋求普遍核安全。核安全首先是國家課題,首要責任應由各國政府承擔。各國政府應知責任、負責任,既對自己負責,也對世界負責,加強協作、共建共享、互利共贏,既從中受益,也作出貢獻,努力實現核安全進程全球化。
– We should place equal emphasis on symptoms and root causes, and comprehensively promote nuclear safety by eliminating the root causes of risk. We will improve nuclear safety policy measures, develop modern and low-risk nuclear energy, maintain a balance between supply and demand in nuclear materials, strengthen non-proliferation efforts and export control, further international cooperation against nuclear terrorism, and eliminate potential dangers to nuclear safety and risks of nuclear proliferation. All countries should work together to develop harmonious and friendly relations, create a peaceful and stable international environment, and solve the problems of nuclear terrorism and proliferation from the root, thus realizing the lasting safety and development of nuclear energy.
——治標和治本并重,以消除根源為目標全面推進核安全努力。完善核安全政策舉措,發展現代化和低風險核能,堅持核材料供需平衡,加強防擴散出口控制,深化打擊核恐怖主義國際合作,消除核安全隱患和核擴散風險。各國應團結起來,發展和諧友善的國家關系,共同營造和平穩定的國際環境,從根源上解決核恐怖主義和核擴散問題,實現核能的持久安全和發展。
China practices peaceful use of nuclear energy on the basis of ensuring safety, which responds to the needs of the people today and will not leave any risk or cause harm to future generations. This practice will guarantee the sustainable development of human civilization. The basic principles of China's nuclear safety are: putting safety first and exercising nuclear safety governance in accordance with the law, focusing on risk prevention and implementing defense-in-depth, ensuring clear lines of responsibility and independent regulation, and practicing strict management and providing comprehensive guarantees.
中國在確保安全基礎上開展核能和平利用,既滿足當代人的需要,又不對子孫后代遺留隱患、構成危害,以保障人類文明永續發展。中國核安全工作的基本原則是:安全第一、依法治核,預防為主、縱深防御,責任明確、獨立監管,嚴格管理、全面保障。
– Putting safety first and exercising nuclear safety governance in accordance with the law. We should establish the concept that safety is of the utmost importance and ensure that nuclear safety is the paramount consideration in decision-making. We will continue to improve the system of laws and regulations on nuclear safety, and ensure that nuclear energy is developed and utilized in accordance with the law.
——安全第一、依法治核。牢固樹立“安全大于天”的觀念,確保核安全決策不受其他因素影響。不斷健全核安全法律法規體系,確保依法依規開發利用核能。
– Focusing on risk prevention and implementing defense-in-depth. We should concentrate our efforts on eliminating potential risks and preventing nuclear accidents through mature design, high-quality construction, and sound operational management. Following the principle of defense-in-depth, we set up multiple barriers and multiple forms of protection, and strengthen the integrity, independence, and effectiveness of preventative measures.
——預防為主、縱深防御。重視通過成熟的設計、高質量的建造和運行管理,消除隱患,預防核事故發生。貫徹縱深防御理念,設置多道防御屏障和多重保護,強化防御措施的完整性、獨立性和有效性。
– Ensuring clear lines of responsibility and independent regulation. Nuclear facility operating organizations shall take overall responsibility for safety. The national nuclear safety regulatory body implements independent regulation; the nuclear industry and energy authorities, and other relevant authorities are responsible for the management of nuclear safety in accordance with the division of duties.
——責任明確、獨立監管。核設施營運單位對核安全負全面責任。國家核安全監管部門獨立實施核安全監管;國家核工業主管部門、能源主管部門和其他有關部門按照職責分工負責有關的核安全管理工作。
– Practicing strict management and providing comprehensive guarantees. We should strictly implement nuclear safety laws, regulations and standards, and carry out regulation through administrative licensing, technical review, surveillance, and law enforcement. We will establish a coordination mechanism for nuclear safety, improve the relevant policies and regulations, formulate and implement relevant plans, foster a nuclear safety culture, and strengthen resource allocation and capacity building, so as to ensure comprehensive nuclear safety.
——嚴格管理、全面保障。嚴格落實核安全法律法規和標準要求,通過行政許可、技術審評、監督執法等方式實施監管。建立核安全工作協調機制,完善核安全政策法規,制定實施核安全規劃,培育核安全文化,加強資源配置和能力建設,全面保障核安全。

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overall [əuvə'rɔ:l]

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adj. 全部的,全體的,一切在內的
adv.

 
kernel ['kə:nl]

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n. 核心,中心,精髓 [計算機] 核心

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uphold [ʌp'həuld]

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v. 支撐,贊成,鼓勵

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potential [pə'tenʃəl]

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adj. 可能的,潛在的
n. 潛力,潛能

 
paramount ['pærəmaunt]

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adj. 極為重要的,至高無上的 n. 最高統治者 Pa

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fundamental [.fʌndə'mentl]

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adj. 基本的,根本的,重要的
n. 基本原

 
technical ['teknikəl]

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adj. 技術的,工藝的

 
primary ['praiməri]

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adj. 主要的,初期的,根本的,初等教育的

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peaceful ['pi:sfəl]

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adj. 安寧的,和平的

 
capacity [kə'pæsiti]

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n. 能力,容量,容積; 資格,職位
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